Research Indicating Increase In Antarctic Snowfall

Fig. 1. Summer in Antarctica.

Scientists have compiled a record of snowfall in Antarctica dating back the last 200 years.

A 2018 study of snowfall in Antarctica headed by Dr Liz Thomas shows there has been a significant increase in precipitation over the 2017 period of up to 10%.

It has been reported that an additional 272 billion tonnes of snow fell on Antarctica annually, between 2001-2010 in comparison to that recorded in ice samples between 1801-1810.

However, that said, if taken over the last 40 years, there remains a general decrease in ice volume.

Speaking to the BBC, the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) researcher said the work was undertaken to try to put current ice losses into a broader context. “The idea was to get as comprehensive a view of the continent as possible.”

“There’s been a lot of focus on the recent era with satellites and how much mass we’ve been losing from big glaciers such as Pine and Thwaites Islands. But, actually, we don’t have a very good understanding of how the snowfall has been changing.

“The general assumption up until now is that it hasn’t really changed at all – that it’s just stayed stable. Well, this study shows that’s not the case.”

Dr Thomas and colleagues examined 79 ice cores drilled from across Antarctica. These long cylinders of frozen material are essentially just years of compacted snow.

By analysing the cores’ chemistry, it is possible to determine not only when their snows fell but also how much precipitation came down. For example, one key marker used to differentiate one year from the next, even seasons, is hydrogen peroxide.

This is a photochemical product that forms in the atmosphere when water vapour encounters sunlight.

“For us, that’s perfect. Antarctica works like an on-off switch with the long ‘polar nights’ in winter and long periods of daylight in summer,” Dr Thomas explained.

Fig. 2. Moving scientific equipment over the ice.

The previous, most extensive survey of this kind assessed just 16 cores. The new study is therefore much more representative of snowfall behaviour across the entire continent.

It found the greater precipitation delivered additional mass to the Antarctic ice sheet at a rate of 7 billion tonnes per decade between 1800 and 2010 and by 14 billion tonnes per decade when only the period from 1900 is considered.

Most of this extra snow has fallen on the Antarctic Peninsula, which saw significant increases in temperature during the 20th Century.

“Theory predicts that, as Antarctica warms, the atmosphere should hold more moisture and that this should lead therefore to more snowfall. And what we’re showing in this study is that this has already been happening,” Dr Thomas said.

The BAS researcher is keen to stress that the increases in snowfall do not contradict the observations of glacial retreat and thinning observed by satellites over the last 25 years. Although the extra snow since 1900 has worked to lower global sea level by about 0.04mm per decade, this is more than being countered by the ice lost to the oceans at Antarctica’s margins, where warm water is melting the undersides of glaciers.

Dr Anna Hogg, from Leeds University, UK, uses radar satellites to measure the shape and mass of the ice sheet.

She told BBC News: “Even with these large snowfall events, Antarctica is still losing ice mass at a faster rate than it is gaining mass from snowfall, mainly due to the regions of known ice dynamic instability, such as in the Amundsen Sea Embayment which includes Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers.

“The Antarctic 4.3mm contribution to global sea level since about 1992 is still our best estimate.”

Liz Thomas’ research has been published in the EGU journal Climate of the Past.

Dr Liz Thomas presented the results of the study at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly in Vienna, Austria.

Related Research:
1. Why is Antarctica’s sea ice spreading as the Arctic’s shrinks?
Nuclear Safety Projects & Radiation Science | Particle Physics | Fluid & Thermodynamics | Climate Variability & Environmental Science | Other areas of research: British (Royal) Etiquette | Social & Behavioural Psychology.